Determine your Web Front-end server

Almost architecture design documentation I have had chances to review so far wrongly indicated actual number of web front-end servers in SharePoint farm. There are not many articles dedicated to telling you how to identify which servers performing web front-end role in an existing farm. They likely are written to let you know how many web front-end servers you should have for a good design and better performance.

This article is going to share you a very quick tip to determine a web front-end server. It will also provide a few caveats to help you maintain and mitigate potential risks.

What is so called a web front-end server?

A web front-end server basically is responsible for handling web services and hosting web applications and pages representing to end-users. It also receives incoming page request including query made in browser from end-user. To check to see whether a server in your farm is a web front-end or not, open Central Administration > System Settings > Manage services on server. In the Services on server page, select server and check Microsoft SharePoint Foundation Web Application service. If it’s started, the selected server is acting as a web front-end server.

You can also do a quick check through PowerShell.

If you see Online status, the service is started.

Caveats and Considerations

There are caveats and considerations on the topic you would have to be aware of. First, when documenting your SharePoint architecture, count any servers that have Microsoft SharePoint Foundation Web Application service started. For example, a farm that has totally 5 servers may have 3 web front-end servers, 2 application servers and 1 database server. It’s because one of the server that acts two roles: web front-end and application. Incorrect documenting would probably lead to wrong direction in SharePoint farm design in the feature when you need to scale out.

What will happen if you stop or restart Microsoft SharePoint Foundation Web Application service on any SharePoint servers? People simply think that restarting a SharePoint service doesn’t affect SharePoint or when it affects, things can get sorted out rapidly. That’s not really true. When you stop the Microsoft SharePoint Foundation Web Application service, SharePoint will understand that the farm is going to remove a web front-end server. The configuration database will then either update the topology again. There would be no problem at this point. However, when you start the service again, custom solutions will be automatically deployed to the new web frond-end server. If your solutions have user controls, SafeControl entries will be added to the web.config file. IIS settings are changed as well.

I recently involved in a disaster case in which the main web front-end MOSS 2007 server went down due to inadequate space for logging. I then stopped Windows SharePoint Services Web Application service in it to route all requests to the second web front-end server. Everything worked on the end-user side after then. The problem was that the Central Administration hosted in the main web front-end server was not accessible to us. When we started Windows SharePoint Services Web Application service again, all SharePoint sites we opened in the main server completely went down throwing out Unexpected error message – one of the provoking error messages Microsoft has ever made in the SharePoint platform. We spent hours investigating in SharePoint logs and realized that many controls were missing, IIS changes or so on. Making a copy of the second web front-end server’s IIS settings and web.config file didn’t work. Finally, we came to the decision to have to recover the main web front-end server entirely including system state. In a nutshell, if you restart Microsoft SharePoint Foundation Web Application service, be aware of the following things:

  • Custom solutions are deployed to the new web front-end. Resources including GAC files may overlap existing one.
  • Central Administration web site may not be accessible if it’s hosted in the server you stop the service.
  • Changes are made in the web.config file and IIS settings.

If you encounter that the Microsoft SharePoint Foundation Web Application service in SharePoint 2010/2013 is stuck on starting, chances are you have to run the following command:

This command can be applied for MOSS 2007 environment. In terms of third-party production deployment, the pricing may vary. Most common are based on the number of web front-end servers in farm. Saving the licensing cost by stopping Microsoft SharePoint Foundation Web Application service is not recommended.

When you are not enabling Microsoft SharePoint Foundation Web Application service, Health Analyzer warns you. Trust you design plan first, then Health Analyzer.

Last thing, impact on application server’s performance may exist if you start Microsoft SharePoint Foundation Web Application service in it. The worker process and timer service consume high memory while the application server needs resources to perform critical service applications (e.g. Search or Excel Service application).


Determining Web front-end role in your SharePoint farm is critical to your entire SharePoint solution. Upon the design, you can tune up SharePoint performance by enabling services in servers properly. Moreover, with correct determination, your web application and SharePoint sites are fully protected.

Do consider carefully planning for backup and recovery for your web front-end servers as they make SharePoint available to end-users who pay you money. Making them down means you lose buck and possibly dream job.


  1. February 26, 2016 — 3:13 am

    Very nice and detailed blog post

    • nnthuan
      March 8, 2016 — 8:43 am

      Thank you Aroh. Hope this helps!

  2. Louai
    March 16, 2016 — 7:31 am

    Very nice article … I have a very same scenario in which I restarted the service and then many controls are missing and the web.confug is changed entirely …
    How did you recover the main web front-end server entirely including system state ?

    • nnthuan
      March 16, 2016 — 10:02 am

      Hi Louai,

      In that case we restored the snapshot to recover the whole system state. Actually that was not the way we expected to do but there was no better choice in the event of urgent recovery.


  3. Pham Ha Phuong
    April 29, 2016 — 11:17 am

    Thank you

  4. August 4, 2016 — 11:26 am

    Servers on which the Microsoft Foundation Web Application Service is started necessarily need not be the Web Front end server .On the Application servers also we can have this service started . To determine a Web front server , we can check the IIS logs, user tools like Fiddler, try and edit the host entry file on your computer etc.

    • Thuan Soldier
      August 5, 2016 — 12:17 pm

      Thank you for your comment Aravinda. What I really meant is if you start the Microsoft Foundation Web Application Service on a server, it’s playing as a web front-end server where your solution packages are extracted onto every time you deploy your solution. You can use load balancer, host-file or so on to route incoming request to your designated web server but internally due to the nature of Microsoft SharePoint Foundation Web Application service, SharePoint still considers a server running the service a web front-end server. This is one of the things a lot of people still confused.

  5. Huiwoo
    March 9, 2017 — 11:04 am

    Thuan, were implementing a test of SP2016 topology is 2 TIER 1.Front-end with Distributed Cache and 2.Application with Search my question is
    1. Application with Search can act as (frontend? is so, i check the services but frontend web app is not started im confused)
    2. Front-end with Distributed Cache you meant that if this server rebooted it may change the webconfig file? or only when you stop/start web application only overwirte webconfig
    3. what is the best practice to have smooth frontend?
    4. how do i deploy app from appserver to frontend?
    5. do you have a white paper of this?

    thanks and appreciate your answer

    • Thuan Soldier
      March 20, 2017 — 5:45 pm

      Hi Huiwoo,

      Role conversion in MinRole is available in November 2016 Public Update for SharePoint Server 2016 (Feature Pack 1) or later. If you haven’t installed the Update yet then you can not convert role. For role conversion, see the step here

    • Thuan Soldier
      March 20, 2017 — 5:50 pm

      If you stop Foundation Web Application (meaning you convert the role) the package artifact will be unprovisioned. Packages are only deployed to the server running Foundation Web Application.

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